What is Damascus Steel – How it Made ?

Damascus Steel Billets

Damascus steel is a well-known type of steel that is easily recognizable due to its sleek look and beautiful aesthetics with unique watery or wavy light and dark pattern design on the metal.

Damascus steel is the one and only structure of steel that have the unique attribute of alternating light and dark grains within the material and a high carbon content. Moreover, it is also called Persian watered steel. Damascus steel is the name of an Islamic steel craftsman from around 750-945 CE.

Damascus steel was used to form swords and weapons because it is far superior to iron due to its hardness and flexibility while maintaining a sharp edge.

Damascus Steel was discovered from Wootz steel to Damascus by the Arabs; this steel came from Syria’s Capital City, Damascus.

At the present time, Damascus is not the same as the original metal. It’s been made using the same technique but the original Damascus used a metal called wootz steel.

Wootz steel does not exist today, but at present time blades are made using high-carbon steel and forged with pattern welding is almost the same as Damascus .

Real Damascus is laired steel that ancient blacksmiths created for weapons and the majority of decorations items.

How is Damascus steel made

Damascus is a steel that is made up of a large number of layers that are hammered out together.

It is a technique of refining iron after continuous hammering, bending, and stretching. You get a piece of steel that consists of a hundred layers after repeating this process several times. This technique is also known as Layered Damascus , or bent steel.

The starting point for almost all the other techniques is the “simple” damask known as laminated or multilayer, which is the basic technique.

This first stage of development must be perfectly mastered because it allows a large number of different designs to be produced, including the Twist, Raindrop, Ladder, Firestorm and Feather.

The creation of contemporary Damascus is an art. The process is extensive and precise as its starts from selecting the right steel with correct alloys and carbon content for shaping and quenching the steel at different temperatures for forging.

The two steel plates are stacked into alternating layers to create Damascus Steel Billets that are then twisted, folded, heated, and hammered for creating Damascus.

When the billets are folded and beaten constantly, and hot metal turns dark red due to high temperature that will lend the metal to cracking, and the steel is then quenched to harden the structure.

At long last, the crafter finishes the process by continuing hammering, lengthening and flattening until the unique Damascus pattern is revealed.

Damascus Care

How to keep Damascus from Rusting?

Caring for your blade

Caring for a Damascus blade is much the same as for a Carbon steel blade – moisture is the enemy. Once the edge has built up a patina, it is much more forgiving, but a fresh Carbon steel-based blade will begin to rust in a heartbeat.

Never, ever:

Leave the blade resting in standing water.

Rest the blade on a damp tea towel, washcloth, etc

Store in direct contact with the leather

Wash in a dishwasher

To help your Damascus knife become an heirloom, there are only a few things you need to do.

After use:

Rinse clean under running water and wipe dry with a clean cloth

Lightly oil using a food-safe oil

Store in a dry place

While your blade is still developing a patina, it is a good idea to quickly wipe the blade down before moving on to a food preparation task not involving the knife.


A common mistake when oiling a blade is to use something like olive oil that will go rancid. Instead, we recommend mineral oil, as it is food-safe, cheap, and readily available.


Many people new to Damascus knives approach washing their blades with trepidation. Cleaning your knife is straightforward:

First, rinse it under running water.

Next, wipe it with a lightly soapy dish sponge.

Rinse it again and wipe it dry.


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